Pines produce resin in their leaves and to varying degrees in their wood. This is one of their more distinct characteristics and should be regarded as a signature. (A signature of a plant is a characteristic that results from and represents certain energetic qualities of the plant; and, therefore, is used as an indicator of medicinal potential.) For one thing, we can consider the flavor and aroma, which is resinous, citrussy, and (of course) piney. This aromatic flavor generally fits into the pungent or spicy category of Chinese medicine’s five element theory. It removes, stimulates, and disperses stagnant fluids. Though Tierra considers Pinus tabulaiformis and P. sylvestris to be bitter in flavor (he also considers it to be warm, which is more characteristic of pungent than bitter) and Holmes considers Pinus sylvestris to be “a bit pungent and bitter”. Holmes also considers P. sylvestris to be thermally “neutral with warming and cooling potential” as well as “dry/moist stimulating” (he defines stimulating generally as a pungent quality). Even though both authors want to focus on the bitter flavor category, they describe a largely pungent plant when considering it warm and stimulating. Tierra is following traditional Chinese classification of Pinus tabulaiformis, P. massoniana, and P. yunnanensis which utilizes the knots of the wood.
Pinus sylvestris (Scotch Pine) is the most widely distributed Pine. It was brought here from Europe and can normally be found along driveways and cultivated lands. It can be easily distinguished from the other common species by its orange shaded upper bark and the light blue-green of its needles.
Planetary Herbology by Michael Tierra
The Energetics of Western Herbs by Peter Holmes